There are two principal categories of building solar heating and cooling systems: passive and active. Passive systems integrate into the structure of the building technologies that admit, absorb, store, and release solar energy, thereby reducing the need for electricity use to transport fluids. In contrast, active systems also include fans and pumps controlled to move air and heat transfer fluids, respectively, for space heating and/or cooling and domestic hot water (DHW) heating. Current international trends, which are expected to continue, will increasingly rely on a combination of active and passive solar systems as enabling technologies for net-zero energy solar buildings (NZESBs) – solar buildings that produce as much energy as they consume over a year. Similarly, hybrid systems – active/passive and thermal/electric – will gain popularity, such as the photovoltaic/ thermal (PV/T) systems that are described later in this chapter. This section presents approaches that are used for modeling and simulating both passive and active solar systems. First, techniques are discussed for modeling direct gains, analyzing transient responses of buildings, and developing simplified analytical thermal models of direct-gain rooms. Next, methods are presented for the thermal analysis of hybrid PV/T collectors and building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems. Then, to conclude the section, an overview of the design of two net-zero energy houses is described. In the second part of the chapter, various design methods are presented that include the simplified f-chart method, which is suitable for both solar heating and solar cooling of buildings, as well as for domestic water heating systems, utilizability Φ, and the Φ; f-chart methods. Subsequently, various packages for advanced modeling and simulation of active systems are presented. Finally, it should be noted that the components and subsystems discussed in other chapters of this volume may be combined to create a wide variety of building solar heating and cooling systems.
Solar Thermal Systems; Solar Systems; F-Chart Method; Energy Solar.