Spatial Variation of Copper in Soils and Grains of Wheat Farms in Southern Iran


One of the basic principles of sustainable production is improving the quality of soil fertility aspect and having knowledge of nutrients status in soil. This study was done to investigate spatial variation of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) elements in soil and grain of wheat farms in northern part of Khouzestan province. At first, 95 paired samples of soil and grain (100,000 hectare) were collected from studied regions according to weighting method. Then, Cu and Mn concentration in soil and grain and also some soil characteristics (pH, organic carbon, clay, phosphorus, and lime) were measured. For analyzing data GS+ and SPSS14 soft ware were used for determining spatial variation and interpolation. Results of Mn studying showed that more than 75% of studied soils and also more than 78% of grains had deficiency. Cu concentration of about 90% of soils and grains was desirable. According to results, there were significant correlations between soil's copper and phosphorus (r= 0.79*), clay (r= 0.78*) and salinity (r= 0.77*) and also between soil's manganese and acidity (r=0.83*).In spatial variability, the best model for each parameter according to statistics (MAE and MBE) and cross validation technique was spherical model. The maps showed that the highest soil and grain Mn were belonging to north east, the highest grain copper to north and the highest soil's Cu was belonging to south of studied region. Then, knowledge of these elements amount in grain and soil and preparing the related large scale maps help us really to manage soil fertility and have better plant nutrition.


copper; manganese; wheat; spatial variation;

Full Article - PDF